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This bottleneck may have separated the bull shark from the rest of the Elasmobranchii subclass and favored the genes for an osmoregulatory system.
Elasmobranchs' ability to enter fresh water is limited because their blood is normally at least as salty (in terms of osmotic strength) as seawater through the accumulation of urea and trimethylamine oxide, but bull sharks living in fresh water show a significantly reduced concentration of urea within their blood. osmolarity) of a bull shark in fresh water is still much higher than that of the external environment.
However, bull sharks in fresh water possess several organs with which to maintain appropriate salt and water balance; these are the rectal gland, kidneys, liver, and gills.
This may reduce the added cost of greater negative buoyancy.
Bull sharks are able to regulate themselves to live in either fresh or salt water.
While theoretically, bull sharks to live in purely fresh water may be possible, the bull sharks that were being experimented on had died within four years.
The stomach was opened and all that was found were two small, unidentifiable fishes.